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The Cost of a Divorce – What Fees Must be Expected When Divorcing?

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The cost of divorce - How much does divorce cost in 2018?

 

According to the data provided by the Central Statistical Office, as many as 356 marriages are divided into 1000. What do the costs of divorce look like? What are the expenses for preparing those who plan a marriage to be prepared?

the cost of divorce 

 

 

A person applying for a divorce has a choice: to write a petition to the court alone or to hire a lawyer or legal advisor. They usually decide to entrust a divorce case to an experienced lawyer who will not only write a lawsuit, but will also represent the client in court. The cost of employing a court attorney varies depending on the size of the city, as well as the intricacies of the particular case. The regulations do not limit the maximum remuneration of the representative, but they specify its minimum at PLN 720 net. This is the minimum amount you pay for a divorce without adjudging on wine. In the case of proceedings regarding the guilty breakdown of the marriage, the payment amount increases to PLN 1080 net. The more complicated the matter, the higher the fee and can reach even several thousand zlotys.

Court fee

 Court fee

When filing for a divorce, you must provide proof of payment for the court fee. It is PLN 600. You can pay it later, but you must not exceed 6 days from the time you submit your claim - otherwise it will be dismissed. In the case of low income or lack thereof, you can apply for exemption from court costs. If the divorce is carried out without adjudication, then half of the payment will be refunded. PLN 300 is returned to the plaintiff's account, while the other costs are divided in half. This means that the spouse must pay 150 zlotys. In the case of divorce with adjudication about guilt, the entire cost of the court fee shall be borne by a person found guilty of the dissolution of the marriage.

Other costs

 Other costs

If the divorce case is complicated and additional requests are necessary, eg for maintenance, division of property, eviction, or appointment of appraisers, then additional costs should be expected. The fee for granting maintenance in a divorce case is 5% of the amount awarded. However, the maintenance case without divorce does not entail any costs. In the case of a division of property, where the spouses agree, the fee is PLN 300. If the property is a contentious issue, then the cost is PLN 1,000.

In order to obtain a ruling on the spouse's eviction, 200 zlotys are paid. Each judgment is payable additionally. The parent will pay 40 zlotys for securing the visits, and 30 zlotys for the appeal against the security order. Added to this are fees in the form of PLN 6 per page of a copy of the decision. Any attempt to rescue a relationship requiring marital therapy costs between PLN 150 and 200 for the screening. Mediation in the family counseling center is associated with an expenditure of 50 to 200 PLN. When there is a dispute between the spouses regarding parental authority or contact with the child, it is necessary to issue an opinion by the Family Diagnostic and Consultative Center. This is another expense in the amount of 300 to 500 PLN. If, despite the mediation and opinions of the CODEC, the curator's insight into contact with the child is necessary, then additional costs, even up to several thousand zlotys, should be reckoned with.

Exemption from court costs

 Exemption from court costs

If you do not have the resources to set up a divorce case, you can apply for exemption from court costs. To this end, you must file with the claim a documented evidence and proof that the property situation does not allow you to pay a fee, because it would upset the home budget. The forms to be filled in can be found on the court's website or downloaded at his facility. In the case of a case of guilt, the costs are borne by the person guilty of the dissolution of the marriage and is obliged to reimburse the expenses. The court will order payment of not only fees for the ruling, but also for the lawyer, appointment of experts, travel costs. Exemption from court costs does not exempt the spouse from reimbursement if the case is lost. If the plaintiff is found guilty, he will have to reimburse the other party.

How to minimize the cost of divorce?

 How to minimize the cost of divorce?

Not everyone can apply for exemption from court costs. However, there is always the option of reducing additional expenses. To minimize them, it is advisable to bring a case without adjudging on the blame. That's a minimum of PLN 300 saved on the court costs alone, not to mention the attorney. Another way is to find out about child custody before filing a lawsuit. This will avoid spending on requests for security of visits, visits to the CODE, costs of the mediator, etc. Divorce cases can drag on for years, and this generates costs. The compatibility of both sides allows them to be very limited.

As can be seen from the above article, the costs of divorce start at PLN 300 in the case of independent conduct of a case, without adjudging on guilt. In extreme cases, they can reach up to several thousand zlotys. Some people, due to high fees, use installment loans to cover the costs of divorce. To make the break with the partner lighter for the wallet, it is worth taking care to reach a compromise outside the court headquarters, and only carry out the most important matters on the spot. The cost of a divorce - what fees must be expected when divorcing? 3.1 (61.43%) 14 vote [s]

What Can the Debt Vouchers Be?

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What the debt collector can do is sue the debtor. However, this is a last resort, which is used when soft recovery methods fail. If there is legal proceedings, the debt collector will have to show that the debt really exists and that it has not expired

Who is the debt collector?

Who is the debt collector?

 For many people, the debt vindicator is associated with a court bailiff. Nothing more wrong! The debt collector is not a civil servant but an employee of a private debt collection company that collects debts. Thus, his actions are in no way related to the ruling activities of the state. It looks different in relation to the court bailiff. This, using the powers granted to him by the state, has a relatively wide range of powers.

In addition, the bailiff operates on the basis of a specific legal order that he must follow. He also has the obligation to respect the provisions of generally applicable law in his proceedings. The bailiff is subject to legal liability before the court and the competent bailiffs self-government authorities. On the other hand, debt vouchers are only subject to the regulations in force in a given debt collection company. Unfortunately, most of the time for exceeding the powers nothing is threatening the debt collector! Fortunately, this does not mean that the debtor has no rights. If you want to be sure that the employee of the debt collection agency does not exceed your rights, it is worth checking in advance what the debt voucher can collect.

Recovery is soft and hard

Recovery is soft and hard

Debt collection is soft as the name suggests is to act as a settlement. Its characteristic feature is the delicate treatment of the debtor by the debt collector and an attempt to persuade him to cooperate, i.e. to pay the debt. The methods used in this type of debt collection include phones and text messages reminiscent of the need to repay debts or monies.

If the soft recovery fails, the debt collector has the right to reach for hard debt recovery. The purpose of hard debt recovery is to prompt the debtor to settle the obligation as quickly as possible. The methods used in hard debt collection include the initiation of court proceedings, the initiation of enforcement proceedings or conducting an economic interview. A person who fails to pay his debts is also entered in the debtors' registers. Information on indebtedness may also appear on the pages of debt exchanges.

What can the debt vouchers be?

 

What can the debt vouchers be?

If we are late in repaying our debt, our debt may be transferred to a debt collection company. Her main task is to recover her debts. Thus, the debt vindicator will seek to enforce the debt through a settlement. He will also try to find out the delay in repayment. In addition, he will try to contact the debtor about repayment of the loan.

What can the debt vouchers be? He has the right to show us the consequences of non-payment. His powers are limited to attempts to contact the debtor in writing and by phone and make an appointment with him (on condition that the indebted person agrees). Remember that if we ignore the actions of the debt collector, the creditor will most likely try to recover the funds due to him in court.

What can not the debt vouchers be?

What can not the debt vouchers be?

If we are debtors and we are afraid of debt collection proceedings, let's get acquainted with your rights. The actions that can not be taken by the debtor debt collector in relation to the debtor are:

  • Entering the apartment without the consent of the debtor - if we do not let the debt collector, he has no right to enter our house or flat. He can not use coercion against us or enter the property we occupy with the police. If the debt collector entered our house without our knowledge or consent, he committed a crime of violating the home. This is art. 193 of the Penal Code.
  • Intimidation of the debtor - the debt collector can not threaten us with a bailiff, court or instituting proceedings aimed at reimbursement. If he does, he commits the offense described in art. 191 § 1 and 2 of the Criminal Code.
  • Performing eviction from the occupied premises - if the debt collector applies physical violence to the debtor, he / she commits an offense related to the violation of bodily immunity (Article 217 § 1 of the Criminal Code).
  • Taking things that are the property of the debtor - if the debt collector is allowed to do so, he commits a crime of theft of ordinary, robbery, robbery theft or extortion
    (Article 278 § 1 of the Penal Code, Article 280 § 1 of the Penal Code, Article 281 of the Penal Code, Article 282 of the Penal Code).
  • Attachment of a bank account - in a situation where the debt collector claims that this is how he will enforce the repayment, he exposes himself to the crime of fraud. It results from art. 286 § 1 of the penal code

Debt vindicator can not also require the debtor to give him money under duress. Such action in accordance with art. 280 § 1 of the Penal Code and Art. 282 of the Penal Code may constitute a crime. Nor does he have the right to threaten the debtor with his remuneration, pension or disability pension.

What is not yet a debt collector is to inform third parties (including the employer) about existing debt. This also applies to the debtor's family. In a situation where the debt collector has taken such steps, we may suspect him of harassment (Article 190a of the Criminal Code) or defamation (Article 212 § 1 of the Criminal Code).

What kind of rights does the debtor have?

What kind of rights does the debtor have?

Exceeding the rights by the debt collector is the basis for suing him in civil proceedings for infringement of personal rights (Article 24 § 1 of the Civil Code). What else is not an employee of a debt collection agency allowed? He has no right to harass the debtor by phone or text, even if the purpose of such an attempt to contact is to induce debt repayment. It is worth knowing that we also have no obligation to provide our personal data to us, including sensitive data.

If the debt collector exceeds his powers, we can report it to the creditor. We also have the right to submit appropriate notification to the police and prosecutors. Remember that he is obliged to obey the law and act in accordance with it. Although the powers of the debt collector are not very wide, it is worth trying to communicate with him. This will protect us against further requests for payment and the initiation of court proceedings.

 

 

Eco-Responsible Investments: Rating Agencies

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The essential

  • Social and environmental rating agencies evaluate companies according to environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria;
  • There are many rating agencies, sometimes specialized on one of these three criteria;
  • These agencies have methodologies of their own, but the trend is towards the homogenization of practices.

The social and environmental rating agency, or extra-financial rating agency, is tasked with assessing companies according to environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria. Unlike the conventional financial rating agency, it is not remunerated by companies but by investors and managers directly, who seek to reinforce their investment decisions. However, a company may also request an assessment from an extra-financial rating agency in order to highlight its responsible positioning.

The resulting rating is used by asset management companies to build and market socially responsible investment funds (SRIs).

The ESG criteria on which the extra-financial rating is based

Social and environmental rating agencies do not assess a company's ability to repay debt, as traditional rating agencies do. Their mission is to measure the company's potential to create sustainable value. For this, they integrate three criteria:

  • The environmental criterion : it measures all the initiatives taken by the company to limit its environmental impact and to make the transition towards the use of renewable energies.
  • The social criterion : it studies the social climate within the company. It is about respect for diversity, human rights, and the evaluation of working conditions.
  • The governance criterion : it focuses mainly on transparency around executive compensation, the organization of powers, the rights of minority shareholders, etc.

As a result, the extra-financial evaluation is longer-term than the traditional financial evaluation. She studies internal business transformation processes rather than managing her debt.

The different social and environmental rating agencies

The different social and environmental rating agencies

Most social and environmental rating agencies appeared in the early 2000s. In France, the main non-financial rating agencies are: Vigeo , Ethifinance , Innovest and BMJ CoreRating. Some specialize in the evaluation of one criterion to the detriment of others. Proxinvest, for example, works exclusively on governance issues.

In view of investors' growing interest in socially responsible investments, the traditional players in financial rating have decided to take into account these extra-financial criteria in their approach. Thus, Standard & Poor , which bought the British Trucost in 2016 (rating agency specialized in the study of the environmental impact) integrates the delay in sustainable development policies among the risks likely to affect in the longer term the financial health of the company.

It should also be noted that a growing number of management companies and some large institutional investors (pension funds, insurers) are developing their own rating system.

The methodology of SRI rating agencies

The methodology of SRI rating agencies

There is no standard methodology for performing the scoring. Thus, the agencies develop their own indicators, from a selection of inputs. However, the process of obtaining these inputs rarely differs: agencies consult public documents, develop dedicated questionnaires which are then distributed to employees and contractors of the company, rely on stakeholders (NGOs, unions, organizations government, etc.) and the media.

In addition, it organizes meetings with employees and management, which aim to determine:

  • prevention measures taken by the company to limit crises related to ESG issues,
  • the level of application of international standards and ESG best practices ,
  • the quantitative and qualitative performance of the initiatives taken by the company (example: the carbon footprint).

The majority of rating agencies exclude from their analysis companies that are in controversial industries such as tobacco, alcohol, gambling, prostitution, armaments, or those that practice child labor. These exclusions may however differ depending on the country of origin of the agency

A desire to standardize eco-responsible rating methods

A desire to standardize eco-responsible rating methods

What is more subjective than the appreciation of a socially responsible approach? Unlike exclusively financial, strictly quantifiable criteria, a dimension such as the level of transparency of a company is difficult to measure with indicators. It is therefore not surprising that a score of the same company varies according to the agency that established it, especially since all do not allocate the same weighting to each of the criteria.

However, common indicators are beginning to be deployed: the carbon footprint, for example, is a measure that serves as a basis for rating agencies to assess the environmental impact of the business. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), initiated in 2015 by the United Nations, are gradually integrated into the methodology as benchmarks for impact measurement.

Although the trend has been towards the centralization of the social and environmental rating players in recent years, it does not provide any guarantee that the results will be interoperable. In its action plan on sustainable finance, the European Commission wants to "study the appropriateness of amending the regulation on credit rating agencies that would require them to explicitly include sustainability factors in their assessments" . In this sense, a survey on the quality of research and the independence of rating agencies is planned for the year 2019.

What Nalo does for you

 

Despite their interest in sustainable savings, only 3% of French people have been offered SRI investments in 2017. There is still little offer to invest in socially responsible funds. Even where possible, it is sometimes difficult for the non-expert investor to select from the multitude of funds offered.

Nalo offers a life insurance policy in delegated and tailor-made management, which allows you to easily opt for eco-responsible portfolios. You benefit from the expertise of a FinTech in the selection of ETFs that meet the ESG criteria while taking advantage of their performance at reduced costs.

 

Tips for taking out a mortgage loan if you live in Argentina

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A mortgage loan is not the same as a mortgage, they are often confused, but they have a big difference and it is that the home equity loan serves to obtain money by putting your home as collateral, in case of default, you lose your home. In the case of the mortgage, it is a debt that we contract with the bank to pay your new house in installments.

If what we need is to apply for a mortgage loan because we need a significant amount of money, read on below.

What advice to follow to take out your mortgage loan?

What advice to follow to take out your mortgage loan?

It is important to know a series of issues that we should pay attention to when we are going to take out a mortgage loan. Each particular case is different and if we value our letters well we can facilitate the process a lot. Another important point that we must keep in mind before applying for our loan is that we have a previous savings deposit to be able to deal more easily with the purchase of our house.

1. Rate the contract

One of the most important and decisive steps of taking out your mortgage loan is the signing of the contract. It is very important to review the contract clauses well. Something very advisable is to ask for a copy of the contract and review it patiently at home or perhaps asking for help from an advisor. It is necessary to read the entire contract very well, including the fine print and not leave information for granted.

Some important clauses would be:

  • The cases of default

  • insurance and other products associated with your mortgage loan

  • permitted uses of the property

  • or cost of early cancellation.

2. Evaluate the type of insurance

Most mortgage loan contracts usually carry associated expenses for other types of products such as insurance, and usually are. There are different types: home insurance, life insurance, theft or fire insurance ... etc. It is advisable to assess well what are the conditions of these products since choosing well you can save some pesos.

3. Total financial cost and the initial fee rate

financial cost

On the whole it is essential to review the Total Financial Cost of the purchase of the real estate, but the initial fee rate is also important since this type of added expenses can greatly influence the amount of our fees. Such as administrative expenses, reporting and granting, etc.

4. Consider the expenses of writing

The clerk's expenses can be an important percentage of the total loan expense. Since this expense runs from the buyer's account it is advisable to take into account who you hire for this purpose and their fees.

5. Think long term


We must think in the long term, when we contract a mortgage loan we must take into account that at least 10 years are in which we have to take care of this expense. On the one hand inflation and financial-political instability generate a distrust in the market, however, in general the payment of a mortgage is usually more affordable than the payment of a rent , so by valuing all these tips well we can get some Beneficial conditions for our situation, compared to a rental. On the other hand, UVA credits give us the opportunity to pay fees according to the state of the market, so we must take advantage of this opportunity when it suits us.

6. Required documentation and requirements

mortgage loan

When hiring a mortgage loan, another of the fundamental steps is to provide the necessary documentation and meet all the requirements for the loan application to be effective.

As for the mortgage loan requirements, they are usually the following:

  • Submit Argentine ID

  • Be between 21 and 55 years old

  • Last payroll receipts

  • Certificate of employment

  • Summaries of current credit or debit card

  • Certificate 

  • Marital status of the applicant

  • Finally: photocopy of the title of the property and proof of the real estate tax showing the cadastral value.

It is important to have the time in which you will get the issuance of these documents so that they are finally on time when applying for your mortgage loan. If you cannot gather them, it is better that you do not show up for the prequalification of your home.

Consumer Loans Benefits Which Will Be Better?

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When taking out a consumer loan, it is worthwhile to precede this activity with a reliable analysis of its costs. In addition to the APY indicator, Wibor is also crucial. Under this mysterious concept, there is a reference rate on the basis of which banks set the interest rate. Wibor 3m or 6m - which is better?

The banking market is governed by a complex system of laws and mechanisms. Although many of them may seem quite complex and complicated, it is worth being aware of the basics. This will allow not only to better understand, for example, the credit sector and its functioning, but also be better prepared in the face of incurring this obligation.

Consumer loans are benefits that, in addition to the actual amount of money borrowed, contain a standard fee dimension. Their type, way of calculating, the amount and frequency of collection is legally regulated, but not all concepts enjoy widespread recognition.

Interest - this concept seems to be clear. Similarly with a commission that functions not only in the sphere of the financial world. However, when talking about APY or WIBOR - many consumers may face a problem deciphering these terms.

Today we will focus on characterizing this second concept. So what is a vibration?

 

 

The term Wibor is an abbreviation of Warsaw Interbank Offered Rate. This is a unique indicator for the Polish financial market, by means of which the reference interest rate of all loans granted in our country is determined.

In other words, the height of the Wibor parameter shows the maximum percentage at which banks are willing to lend money among themselves. Such transactions occur regularly, mainly of course between larger and smaller entities.

What is the significance of the consumer?

What is the significance of Wibor for the consumer?

 

If Wibor is an indicator concerning mainly internal processes in the banking market, what is its significance for people taking out consumer loans? Well, consumer loans are most often loans taken in zlotys with a variable interest rate.

The amount of the variable interest rate is not fixed rigidly. Sometimes it happens that banks offer customers the option of choosing Wibor rates in two tariffs - three-month or six-month. Usually, however, most of the outlets stop at offering either one or the other.

And here comes the concept of a vibrator, which in the context of the interest rates of many bank customers has already met in the form of "3M vibrator" or "Vibor 6m".

When comparing the two types of vibrations appearing in the context of taking out a loan, the period of interest rate update must obviously be taken into account at the beginning. In the case of 3m vibrations, it happens every three months, and in the case of 6m vibrations - every six months.

Considering these different times of updating the rate - which will be a better choice? Everything depends on changes on the financial market related to interest rates. If their value drops at a given moment, then the vibration 3m will be safer.

This is due to the fact that it is updated more frequently, which reduces the interest costs of the given mortgage. It is an advantage that comes from borrowing with variable interest rates.

However, if the time comes for the market to increase the interest rate on loans - then, the situation changes by 180 degrees. Then the 6m vibration is the more optimal choice, because it changes less often. This allows you to keep the loan costs at the current level until the update, which may sometimes come after the "calming down" of the situation. As a result, the 6m vibration can allow you to wait out the unfavorable economic climate.

Wibor 3m or 6m - it never has a golden mean

 

Wibor 3m or 6m

The global financial crisis of the end of the last decade has shown that the financial market is far from stable today. Therefore, forecasting long-range forecasts is usually pointless, as it is difficult to predict accurate behavior, for example in the interest rate sector in a few dozen years or so.

This time dimension is not accidental here. Most consumers take loans for many years, paying off in many installments. This means, therefore, that the chances for extreme fluctuations in the financial market to pass interest rates are more than likely.

In other words - during mortgage loans it is difficult to expect that the choice of the 3m or 6m parameter would bring continuous benefits. At the moment, they can be noticeable, but not much later - the customer may lose.

The issue of choosing the vibrator parameter should be based on a response to the current situation on the financial market. Currently, for example, the vibrator drops, so the 3m parameter will be better. However, there are many economists' opinions that the financial market may break down in the near future. Then, the situation may be reversed. So there is no golden mean. It remains cool calculation, adequate risk assessment, consult a competent adviser and luck.

 

Debt Consolidation – After What Time The Bailiff

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 Waivers - after what time the bailiff?

 Waivers - after what time the bailiff?

 

Timers are quick loans granted by private companies, usually for a period of 7.14 or 30 days. They are not required to receive them, just the ID card and the signature on the contract. However, taking out a loan involves the necessity to repay it within the deadline specified in the contract. Problems begin when there is no money to settle the obligation. What are the consequences of not paying the payday and after what time the case is referred to the bailiff?

Easy access to additional cash means that many people treat payday as a way to quickly fulfill their shopping whims. What are the borrowed money usually spent on? Women buy furniture and other interior accessories as well as branded handbags and men, smartphones or motorcycles, as well as equipment for them. According to a report from the National Debt Register from 2017, Poles are eager to use extended offers of non-bank companies, and their average indebtedness varies depending on the province and ranges from PLN 3800 to PLN 4700.

 

Debt collection by the department of the loan company

 

 Debt collection by the department of the loan company

 

All steps that will be taken by the loan company in the event of non-payment of the liability should be specified in the contract. To be aware of them, read the document before signing it. All doubts and unclear issues should be immediately explained to the company representative. The debtor who is in arrears with the repayment of the drawn-out payday should expect a fairly quick response from the lender. The company's debt collection department will contact him to determine the delay in repayment and when the liability will be settled. In the absence of telephone contact with the debtor, the debt recovery department will return by letter with a request for repayment of the outstanding funds. In most loan agreements, the debt collection is payable and the debtor is charged to it. Telephone, SMS and letter reminders are called "Monitem" and each lender has a price list of such service, which adds to the client's debt. It is worth remembering that after exceeding the repayment date, interest for each day of delay is added to the loan amount. Therefore, the sum to be refunded may differ significantly from the initial value of the liability specified in the loan agreement.

 

Debt service in a debt collection company

 

 Debt service in a debt collection company

If the internal debt collection department has difficulty contacting the borrower or motivating him to pay the debt through telephones and letters, the matter is directed to a professional debt collection company. This can happen even a few weeks after receiving the first prompt - reminders about repayment. The debt collector works quickly. He contacts the client - debtor by phone, visits him at home or at work. He is firm in his actions, but in many cases he tries to help the borrower by analyzing his financial situation and proposing various solutions, for example, spreading the repayment of the obligation into convenient installments . Most often, however, debtors are afraid of the debt collector and avoid contact with him: they do not answer phones, they change their place of residence for some time.

Fear of consequences and shame associated with financial problems are, in many cases, sufficient motivation to settle the obligation. At this stage some of the debtors decide to take another loan to pay off the previous one. In this way, they try to gain the time necessary to collect the necessary funds to settle the debt. Such an action may lead to falling into a spiral of debt. Each subsequent loan will be larger, because the basic amount will include the fee for its granting, interest on interest and interest on arrears. This is not the best way to improve your financial situation. What happens if the debtor does not pay the obligation and does not respond to the calls of a professional debt collection company?

 

Submission of the case to the bailiff

 

 Submission of the case to the bailiff

In the event of problems with the recovery of the money, the loan company may refer the case to court. For the lender, such a solution is a last resort. However, companies willingly use it when other methods taken to recover funds fail. From the moment of issuing the order for payment, the bailiff becomes the person responsible for debt recovery. Therefore, it can take various actions: requisition the debtor's property - for example, household appliances and audio / video devices or take up its remuneration, real estate or bank accounts. Referral to the court is final, but it is a guarantee for the non-bank company that the money will be recovered.

It can therefore be assumed that the bailiff is appointed to enforce the indebtedness within 2 to 5 months from the date of repayment. However, this process does not have a specific time frame and in some cases may take much longer.

It is very easy to receive fast cash : just use the offer of one of many loan companies . Money will go to your wallet almost immediately and serve - as statistics show - to fulfill your dreams. Problems begin when there is no money to pay off. Loan companies most often carry out debt collection in several stages. At the beginning attempts are made to establish contact with the debtor. If it is not possible to reach an agreement, the matter may be referred to the court even after a few months. The bailiff, by implementing the order of the court order, quickly and effectively recovers the debt. To avoid unpleasant consequences, it is good to keep common sense when making commitments and remember that borrowed funds will have to be returned anyway.